EDUCATION

Revised guidelines for the prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings in Uganda

Education is universally acknowledged as a key factor for human development. The right to education is constitutionally guaranteed for every person in Uganda irrespective of sex or other economic and social standing (Constitution of the Republic of Uganda, Article 20). Education for women and men, girls and boys widens opportunities, choices, incomes, and therefore plays a key role in lifting communities out of poverty. For women and girls, education is known to contribute to the lowering of fertility rates, delay of the age of marriage, leads to smaller family sizes and significant reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates and ultimately increased mobility and productivity of women and girls. Therefore, in addition to being a right and entitlement, for each citizen, education is one of the catalysts for growth and the economic development of any country.Education is universally acknowledged as a key factor for human development. The right to education is constitutionally guaranteed

Despite the enabling legal and policy framework on gender equality in education in Uganda, existing data indicates increasing cases of teenage pregnancy among adolescent girls aged 10-19 years in education institutions in Uganda. A number of factors are responsible for this worrying situation. Key among them are the increase in sexual abuse of children, poor parenting styles, lack of life skills, negative social and cultural norms among others.

According to the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (2016), 1 in 5 women in Uganda begins sexual activity before age 15, while 64% have sex before age 18. 1 in 4 adolescent women age 15-19 are already mothers or pregnant with their first child. Teenage childbearing is higher in rural areas (27%) than in urban areas (19%).

 

The Ministry of Education and Sports conducted a study on Linkages between Teenage Pregnancy and School Dropout in Uganda in 2015. The study established that school dropouts due to pregnancy among girls of 14 to 18 years of age are 22.3 %. A recent Violence against

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children Survey by the Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social development (2017) established that sexual violence among girls is still high at 35% and nearly half of these girls experienced sexual violence before the age of 16 years. Early teenage pregnancy has far reaching implications not only for the girl herself but also on their children, their families and society at large. World Bank (2017) states that early child bearing increases fertility and population growth, reduces women’s earnings and reduces on the health of children born by young mothers. Unfortunately, only 8% of the girls that drop out of school are given a second chance to re-enroll (MoES, 2015). With the outbreak of the recent COVID -19 pandemic, this situation is likely to get worse.

The Ministry of Education and Sports in 2015 developed guidelines for the prevention and management of HIV/AIDs and unintended pregnancy in school settings in Uganda. The main purpose of the guidelines was to prevent and manage teenage/unintended pregnancy and HIV/ AIDs in school settings. The guidelines for the prevention of teenage pregnancy have been revised to incorporate the re-entry aspect. Although schools have been registering cases of teenage pregnancy, there has not been a systematic way of handling these cases to conclusion. The revised guidelines therefore, stipulate the measures and steps that should be taken in the school setting to prevent and manage pregnancy and re-entry of child mothers.

I therefore urge every stakeholder to use these guidelines in order to effectively prevent teenage pregnancy, and management of re-entry of teenage mothers.

Janet K. Museveni

FIRST LADY AND MINISTER OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS

 

Acknowledgment

The revised guidelines on Prevention and Management of Teenage Pregnancy in School settings in Uganda is a result of a participatory process that involved nationwide consultations with District Education Officers, Head Teachers, Foundation Bodies, Management Committees, Parents, Learners, Religious and          Cultural                                                                                                      Institutions,        Members    of Parliament, Development Partners, Ministries of Gender, Labor and Social Development, Ministry of Health, District Local Governments and Members of Civil Society.

Special thanks go to all our development partners especially the UN-family and Irish Aid, for the technical and financial support towards the revision of these guidelines.

 

The Ministry appreciates the input of the members of the Health/HIV Technical Working Group, Gender Technical Working Group, and the Inter-sectoral Committee on the Elimination of Violence against Children (ISC-VACiS), the

M&E working Group and the SPM.

We are also very grateful to the Ministries of Health, Gender, Labour and Social Development, Inter-religious Council and to the Parliament of Uganda for your guidance that enriched the guidelines.

We are equally indebted to the Organization of African First Ladies for Development (OAFLAD) for the support rendered during the finalization of the guidelines. May God richly reward you.

Finally, we are also very grateful to the Health/HIV and Gender Units for spearheading the revision of the guidelines.

 

It is my prayer that head teachers and heads of education institutions find these guidelines useful and utilize them for the benefit of adolescent mothers.

Alex Kakooza PERMANENT SEC

Operational Definitions

The following terms are clarified as applied to school settings

The stage in years at which a teen age citizen may make personal choices as stipulated in the law- 18 years of age.The period in human growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood. Here defined by ages between 10 and 19 years.

Appropriateness                Mostly found to be fitting, suitable or compatible

Defilement               Physical act of having sexual intercourse with a minorThe customs and beliefs, arts, way of life and social organisation of a particular group of people.

Any form of arbitrary distinction, exclusion or restriction affecting a person usually but not

 

Discrimination

only by virtue of an inherent personal characteristics or perceived belonging to a particular group, e.g. a learner is confined due to suspected HIV positive status, irrespective of whether or not there is any justification for these measures.

 

 

children
Health Education

Gender Based Violence   Any act that results in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering to women, men and

Refers to any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes

Legal aid                              Representation and assistance given to manage cases with respect to the law Litigation       A law suit for management of defilement

Mitigation

Management                      Controlling and directing with a view to attaining a desired result

To lessen in force or intensity, minimize toward alleviation; the result of effective prevention and management

Prevention                          Actual support and assurance of safety for a person or persons in school settings   Protection           Actual support and assurance of safety for the person or persons in a given (school) settings

Any act or behavior that conveys to a child that he/she is worthless, flawed, unloved,

 

Psychological              or emotional violence

unwanted, endangered, or of value only in meeting another’s needs. It includes blaming, degrading, isolating, corrupting, exploiting, withholding affection, and belittling the child’s capabilities, qualities and desires, or otherwise behaving in a manner that is insensitive or potentially harmful to the child’s developmental needs or psychology.

 

 

pregnancy.

Re-entry                               Re-admit a former student/ pupil back into school after dropping out due to teenage pregnancy Reintegration            Re-admit a former student/ pupil back into school after dropping out due to teenage

 

 

 

 

Safe/ Healthful School Environment

Is one that protects learners and staff against immediate injury or disease and promotes prevention activities and attitudes against known risk factors that might lead to future disease or disability

 

 

Safety Nets

Provisions/mechanisms that aim at child protection and safety in accordance with the UN conventions on the rights of the child

Refers to an establishment, formal and/or non-formal, for teaching and learning. School

 

School

includes all educational institutions; pre-primary, primary; post primary institutions, tertiary educational institutions, non-formal educational institutions, government aided and non– government aided for and not -for profit institutions.

 

 

School Setting
School Community

All stakeholders directly associated with the school including learners, teaching and non – teaching staff, parents, PTAs, SMCs, BoGs, foundation bodies and nearby community

An institution where formal instruction occurs in accordance with the ministry of Education and Sports calendar and may naturally apply to communities around schools

Sexual Abuse                     The crime or act of harming a child in a physical, sexual or emotional way

A lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about vital issues such as sexual development, reproductive health, interpersonal relationships,

 

Sexuality education

affection, intimacy, body image, and gender roles. It addresses the socio-cultural, biological, psychological, and spiritual dimensions of sexuality by providing information; exploring feelings, values, and attitudes; and developing communication skills, decision-making, and critical-thinking skills in accordance with the laws and policies of Uganda

 

 

Talking compounds          Opportunities for free discussion and learning school settings

Conception that occurs to persons between the ages of thirteen to nineteen years that may

 

Teenage pregnancy

be incidental. In these guidelines teenage pregnancy is extended to refer to pregnancy in girls aged between 10 and 19 years.

 

 

Vulnerable

Values                                 Beliefs about what is right and wrong and what is important in life

Capable of being or likely to be wounded or hurt physically or emotionally; openness to defenselessness; susceptible to temptation or corruption.

Young adult                         Persons, aged between seventeen to thirty-four years Young people            Here defined as persons aged below 24 years

 

Abbreviations and Acronyms

 

BoGs                     Board of Governors

BTVET                   Business, Technical and Vocational Education Training CBOs       Community Based Organizations

CSO                      Civil Society Organization

DEOs                    District Education Officers

DHOs                    District Health Officers

DHT                       District Health Teams

ECD                      Early Childhood Development

EMIS                     Education Management Information System

FBO                      Faith Based Organization

GBV                      Gender Based Violence

IEC                        Information, Education and Communication

MoES                    Ministry of Education and Sports

MGLSD                 Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development MoH       Ministry of Health

NCDC                    National Curriculum Development Centre

NDP                      National Development Plan

NF                         National Framework

NGO                      Non-Governmental Organization

PEP                      Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

PTA                       Parents and Teachers Association

PTC                       Primary Teacher Colleges

SRH                      Sexual and Reproductive Health

SE                         Sexuality Education

SMC                      School Management Committee

UBOS                    Uganda Bureau of Statistics

UDHS                    Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

UN                         United Nations

UNATU                  Uganda National Teachers Union

UNFPA                  United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF                 United Nations Children’s Fund

USAID                   United States Agency for International Development VAC          Violence Against Children

WHO                     World Health Organization

 

Introduction

 

1.1    Overview

Uganda’s population is predominantly young; 37% of the total population being of school going age   (6 to 19 years) while 32% are teenagers (13 to 19 years) (UNPHC, 2016). Schooling children and teenagers spend over 80% of their time at the learning institutions, thus learning institutions have      an extraordinary opportunity to help millions of young people acquire health-supportive knowledge, values, attitudes and behaviour patterns that are beneficial to themselves, other children, their families and community members. In particular, learning institutions can help young people to acquire positive sexual and reproductive health knowledge and practices and to manage conflicting cultural norms and practices. Directly related to sexual and reproductive health knowledge and practices is unintended pregnancy among school girls.

 

Currently, teenage pregnancy (pregnancy in girls below the age of 19 years) remains a great challenge in Uganda. In 2011, over 24% of teenagers reported to have started child bearing (UDHS, 2016). In addition to the associated health challenges, teenage pregnancy often leads to school dropout, hence loss of potential productivity which in the long run contributes to poverty. Of the 28% girls (n=609)   who were sexually active while still at school, 80.1% (488) got pregnant. Of this, 97% dropped out      of school because of the pregnancy (MoES 2015). Thus, pregnancy is one of the main causes of girls dropping out of school. However, in some studies on re-entry of adolescent girls to school, majority of teachers and students were against retention of pregnant girls in school but supported the option of re- entry of girls into school after giving birth. This study also showed that adolescent mothers encounter “ridicule and discriminatory language” from both teachers and other students when they return to school. Further, the way schools manage teenage pregnancy varies from school to school with little (if any) oversight. Most schools expel pregnant girls; however this is on moralistic ground and not backed by any government policy, guideline or directive. Nonetheless, many affected adolescents are willing  to continue with schooling till they complete the school cycle or even attain their excepted academic qualifications. Bearing on the principle of the right to education, the schools have to support these adolescents optimally till they complete the school cycles.

 

Legal and Policy Framework on prevention of HIV and pregnancy, and re-entry after preg- nancy in learning institutions in Uganda

 

A International and Regional Conventions on Rights of Children and Youth

Uganda is a signatory to various international and regional conventions and protocols relating to rights of children to health, education, environment without violence, among others. Key among these in- clude:

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC): Consistent with the obligation under Article 24 of the Convention, the child has the right to the enjoyment of the highest possible standard of health and to have access to healthcare and medical services. In its provision of health services, the State shall place special emphasis on primary and preventative health care and public health education. Article 19 advocates for protection of children from all forms of abuse and

 

neglect, to provide support to those who have been abused and to investigate instances of abuse.

The World Programme of Action for Youth (WPAY), (1995) requires full enjoyment by young people of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and spells out fifteen fields of action including education, health, environment and substance abuse; and

The Sustainable Development Goals which have accompanying targets, including:

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all;

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls;

 

 

National Legal and Policy Framework on School Health

The Constitution of Uganda (1995), (Chapter 4) guarantees the right of every Ugandan to fundamental human rights (Section 20); and to enjoy rights and access to high quality education (Section 34), health care services and clean and health environment (Section 39).

Health Sector Development Plan 2015/16–2019/2024, which among other components, promotes adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health (AYSRH) including the establishment or functionalization of adolescent-friendly corners at all levels of health care, and promotion of sexual and reproductive health education in schools and communities.

National School Health Policy for Uganda (Final Draft, 2018), that promotes the integration of life skills-based education at all levels of education and the improvement of access to and utilization  of SRH services among young people. The policy also encourages linkages between schools with health facilities to ensure access to services for those in need.

National Adolescent Health Policy for Uganda (2004), this provides a framework for the development of adolescent health programs and services, including reduction of pregnancy among adolescents and improving rates of readmission into the education system for young mothers.

The Gender in Education Strategic Plan (2015–2020), that aims at ensuring that all children benefit from equal educational opportunities, regardless of gender, social status, location and ability.

The National Strategy to End Child Marriage and Teenage Pregnancy (NSCM&TP) (2014/2015– 2019/2020), that is aimed at strengthening child protection mechanisms and upholding current legislation to encourage an environment conducive to ending child marriages and pregnancies; and in altering social and cultural norms to reduce the practice of child marriage and teen pregnancy   in Uganda.

National Strategy for Girls’ Education (NSGE) in Uganda (2014–2019). The purpose of this strategy is to address gender inequalities, especially in the school system, that are barriers to girls’ ability  to complete their education.

Reporting, Tracking, Referral and Response (RTRR) Guidelines on Violence against Children in Schools (2015/2020), that provides guidelines on violence against children in schools in Uganda.

National Sexuality Education Framework for Uganda (2018), a framework for ensuring that sexuality education is an integral part of the policies and practices of the school, and in the partnerships   the school develops with the local community, founding bodies, affiliated religious institutions and parents

 

Rationale for these Guidelines

There are many policies and guidelines including a policy on adolescent reproductive health in schools, which also highlights mechanisms needed for prevention of teenage pregnancy. Currently, however, the schools are constrained from applying these policies and directives partly due to lack of harmonized guidelines. Thus, the issuance of the current guidelines is to fill this gap. The current guidelines are based on policies, plans, frameworks and enabling guidelines that recognize and uphold the:

Rights of all people with special focus on marginalized and vulnerable groups and those with special needs such as young girls, orphans, refugees etc

Need for change in attitudes toward pregnant girls, their continuation in school, and subsequent re-entry to school. These attitudes are gender-biased, violate the girl child’s right to education, and thus require concerted efforts to change

Monitoring and evaluation principles needed to ensure that attitudes of the education managers, teachers and the learners have changed about the continuation and re-entry. This should include assessment of reach, coverage and practice of these guidelines.

Need for dissemination and sensitization aimed at complex resistances including social and cultural barriers, limited awareness, and perceived negative influence of retention of pregnant girls at school

 

 

Purpose of the guidelines

The overall purpose of the guidelines is to support prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings, making reference to the Draft National School Health Policy and Sexuality Education Framework, and specifically to:

Outline modes of service delivery within a learning institution setting that enable prevention of pregnancy among girls

Propose linkages for a minimum care package for prevention and management of teenage preg- nancy in learning institution settings

Outline steps and services that should be in place to re-integrate the adolescent mothers into the learning institutions

Other guidelines, including guidelines for reporting and tracking violence against children in school shall be adopted in applying these guidelines to ensure that adolescents are supported to acquire better knowledge and skills that enhance their ability to resist pregnancy.

 

Who may use the guidelines?

Primary users- the beneficiaries in schools

Learners, teachers, tutors, instructors, lecturers, care givers, school health workers and non- teaching staff: in primary, secondary, BTVET and teacher training institutions.

 

Secondary users- the beneficiaries out of school

Parents, guardians, school owners, Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs), school management committees, boards of governors, governing councils, foundation bodies, school communities, community leader and families.

 

Tertiary Users- Policy makers and implementers

Members of Parliament, Ministers, Development Partners, Members of District Councils, Local Councils, Cultural leaders and Religious leaders, Representatives from relevant ministries (MoES and MoH, MoGLSD), NGOs/CBOs, Police the Judiciary, Religious and cultural leaders.

 

How to use the guidelines

This section clarifies how readers may use these guidelines. It provides step by step guidance for readers to ensure they make good use of the guidance provided.

Foremost the user should refer to the section on purpose of the guidelines to understand its importance. Then continue with the Sections 2.0- to understand issues about pregnancy prevention, continuation at learning institutions of pregnant girls and re-entry of adolescent mothers. Finally refers to section 7 and 8 on the roles of the stakeholders and implementation arrangements as  this lays out the general approach to partially reaching out to the learners in their involvement, participation and demonstrating behavior change.

Refer to the respective section in the guideline for step-by step look at the process you will use for preventing and managing teenage pregnancy in school settings.

You may wish to start by reading through the section and the specific subject area guidelines first, noting which ones may apply to your needs. Pay close attention to what each school level guideline proposes and your specific role in complying with the policy creating a suitable environment and the roles of others in the guideline.

 

 

Penalties for default under the provisions of these guidelines

After the approval of these guidelines, the Minister shall, by statutory instrument specify penalties for default under each guideline.

 

            Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy in Learning Institution Settings

 

 

Guiding Principles

 

Rights based approach to ensure that children’s rights are protected. All children have a right to education and thus all obstacles to school completion should be removed to keep girls in the schools longer.

Positive change in perceptions and attitudes of the teachers and the community- teachers need to appreciate that they have an obligation to ensure that children under their care are supported to complete school and are also free from violence. Any act of violence against the children is arbitrary to this obligation and is punishable.

Uphold the do no harm principle- all interventions to prevent early pregnancy, discrimination of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers in schools should minimize possible longer term harm, or support the adolescent mothers and their children in ways that facilitate long-term development.

Needs driven programming: School health programmes will be designed according to and in response to the identified priority needs of the respective school communities.

Repeated exposure to information enhances understanding: A single film, lecture, or school assembly about pregnancy will not be sufficient to assure that students develop the complex understanding and skills they will need to avoid becoming pregnant. Repeated exposures that are stepped according to age should be used instead. The Sexuality Education framework clearly defines the content for each age-category.

Age-appropriateness: Provides sexuality education messaging that will be age-appropriate in respect to content, context, communication, and the consumer – the child. This is because there is a time and season for a child (or every person) to learn what they ought to learn; Children are children, not small adults.

Preparedness, Response and Rehabilitation of Learners: Empowers the learners to be (a) better prepared to prevent and protect themselves, (b) able to immediately respond, mitigate and get desired relief when they are infected, abused, caught up in unplanned situations and (c) able to embark on recovery and rehabilitation of themselves to reduce the long-term effects of such dangerous sexual experiences and return to the educational track as fast as possible.

Best Interests of the Child: In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law,  administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the  best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. All aspects of these guidelines are to be executed in the best interest of the learner. All pregnant girls below 18 years should be treated as children and not “small adults”.

 

Guidelines for prevention of adolescent pregnancy among learners

 

The following are minimum set procedures or actions that should be undertaken to prevent pregnancy among the learners:

Each school shall have a school health committee (SHC) with a trained counselor who maybe a school staff or a counselor from the nearby health facility to provide general counselling to the learners, and testing for pregnancy.

The school shall conduct sexuality education and teach life skills using age-appropriate messages as defined in the national Sexuality Education Framework

The teachers shall employ learner-centered teaching and learning methods to deliver age- appropriate, gender sensitive, culturally accepted sexuality information including abstinence.

The school shall create early safety nets for prevention of early or unintended pregnancy in school settings including enforcing school rules, campaigns or support mechanisms for abstinence

The school shall implement local by-laws that prevent teenage pregnancy

 

The school shall create linkages and reporting mechanisms including legal systems to redress offender

The school shall engage the media to promote prevention messages for teenage pregnancy

 

The school shall create school health clubs and use life skills champions, including who ever got pregnant, for prevention of teenage pregnancy.

The school shall advocate and support sexuality education awareness through campaigns and competitions at both the school and community level.

These guidelines should be disseminated to the learners during assemblies periodically

 

The school shall have community linkage for sensitization and awareness on the dangers of teenage pregnancy.

 

  3.0  Guidelines for management of pregnant girls in learning institution settings

 

 

 

Guiding Principles

 

Rights based approach to ensure that children’s rights are protected. All children have a right to education and thus all obstacles to school completion should be removed to keep girls in the schools longer.

Building strong partnerships and linkages – supporting pregnant girls and adolescent mothers requires learning institutions to build strong partnerships and linkages with parents, the community, health-workers, the police, local leaders, civil society organizations, religious and traditional leaders and with relevant institutions. Many cases of early pregnancies are a result of sexual violence. Also, due to some cultural norms, some pregnant girls and adolescent mothers face psychological and emotion violence. Thus the need for protecting the young girls and young mothers against violence while still   at school.

Positive change in perceptions and attitudes of the teachers and the community- teachers need to appreciate that they have an obligation to ensure that children under their care are supported to complete school and are also free from violence. Any act of violence against the children is arbitrary to this obligation and is punishable.

Uphold the do no harm principle- all interventions to prevent early pregnancy, discrimination of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers in schools should minimize possible longer term harm, or support the adolescent mothers and their children in ways that facilitate long-term development.

Disclosure of pregnancy-related information and confidentiality: No staff shall, knowingly, disclose the pregnancy status and related information of the learner to other learners without consent of the learner.

Needs driven programming: School health programmes will be designed according to and in response to the identified priority needs of the respective school communities.

Best Interests of the Child: In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law,  administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the  best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration“. All aspects of these guidelines are to be executed in the best interest of the child. All pregnant girls below 18 years should be treated as children and not “small adults”.

 

 

Guidelines for management of pregnancy in school settings

 

For proper management of pregnancy in school settings, all schools shall have a sub-committee of School Health Committee (SHC) led by the chair SMC or PTA and coordinated by the Senior woman/ man teacher that is responsible for handling issues of retention of pregnant girls at school and re-entry of adolescent mothers.

 

The following is the list of procedures or actions that should be undertaken when a girl is discovered   to be pregnant:

All girls should be examined for pregnancy periodically, at least once termly and at well time-tabled timelines

When a girl is discovered to be pregnant, she shall be counseled, and the guidelines for retention or continuation at school and re-entry after pregnancy shall be discussed.

The girl’s parents or caregivers shall be summoned to the school for the disclosure of their daughter’s pregnancy status and to receive counselling. The head teacher and other teachers shall be understanding and professional in handling cases of this nature. The head teacher and other teachers shall work with parents to ensure that there is family support/social support for the pregnant girl.

. The school and the parent/caregiver shall enter a signed agreement for the girl to re-enter school (see Annex I).

The SHC including a health-worker from a nearby health facility shall ensure that the parents or the caregivers and the girl receive more than one session of counselling

The counselor(s) together with the girl’s parents or caregivers shall determine if other family members need sensitization and counselling, and if so, they will be invited to school for the counselling.

When it is reported or rumored that a girl is pregnant, she should be tested alongside other girls to avoid stigmatizing her. The girl should be assisted to obtain a medical report that will serve as an official documentation of the pregnancy

The pregnant girl shall be put on a counselling program. The school shall establish clear communication channels for other learners to report pregnancy or rumors. A communication box accessible by designated teachers can be used to collate information about pregnancy

The girl should go on mandatory maternity leave when she is at least three months pregnant. The school shall be flexible in allowing the girl to sit for her end of year examinations if she wishes to. For candidate classes (Primary Seven, Senior 4 and Senior 6), it is mandatory that the pregnant girl sits for her national examinations.

Ridicule or scorn or discrimination of the pregnant girls is considered a form of psychological and emotional violence. Thus, like other forms of Violence against children in schools (VACiS) shall be tracked and resolved using the RTRR guidelines.. The School under the leadership of the head teacher shall take measures to build its capacity to report and track violence against the pregnant girls by fellow learners, teachers and other school staff.

All teachers shall protect the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers from stigma and discrimination

 

The school shall keep in touch with such girls and their families so as to monitor what is happening and provide necessary moral, emotional and spiritual support. Counselling for both the girl and the parents shall be continued.

Both the learner and her parents shall be counseled on the importance of ensuring good outcome of the pregnancy and shall plan for return to school after delivery.

Efforts shall be made by the head-teacher to work with parents to establish the circumstances leading to the pregnancy and obtain information about the father. The school shall support the

 

parents to take action, including legal action if the father of the baby or unborn child is an adult (over 18 years). For adolescent-fathers (student-fathers) who are still at school, the school shall provide counselling.

Those who make girls pregnant shall be exposed as part of tracking and reporting sexual violence against children, provided it is in the best interest of the girl. For example, if teachers and other adults are involved, they shall face legal action. Known student fathers shall be required to be part of childcare and community leaders shall track their involvement in childcare.

Special emphasis shall be on non-discrimination and psychosocial support.

 

Schools shall map out and adopt various modes of disseminating information to the community about pregnant girl’s continuation with schooling and the re-entry of adolescent mothers into school. The school shall timetable and hold an advocacy school week with activities aimed at preventing teenage pregnancies and re-entry of adolescent mothers into school.

The senior woman/man shall be available to receive reports of discrimination, ridicule or jokes about learners who are pregnant or adolescent mothers by fellow learners. Such violations might have happened in the community or at school, and may be reported by the learners from other schools or community members.

 

 

What happens to the child’s father?

The fellow learner as a father

 

If a fellow learner is responsible for the pregnancy, he shall be counselled and his parents/caregivers invited to school for counselling. Both the boy and the parents/caregivers will sign a committal statement to support the girl and the baby (see Annex II). All schools shall monitor and document pregnancies every term. Details to track the girl will be included.

Similarly, the school shall develop or strengthen mechanisms of following up with the girl till she delivers and returns to school.

The PTA and SMC shall also play a role of home visits to the pregnant girl’s or young mother’s home

 

The boy shall also be given mandatory leave at the same time the girl goes on leave. This might act as a deterrent and lesson to other boys. He will only return to school after she has delivered.

The school shall keep records about the boy. This will be useful in tracking him. Such records will be transferred to the boy’s new school in case he changes schools. For this reason, schools are required to formally check with the learner’s previous school about his

involvement in cases of pregnancy. The previous school shall provide a copy of correct records to the new school.

An outsider as a father

The PTA or SMC should play a role in tracking down the person responsible for the pregnancy. If the person responsible is an adult, legal action should be taken against him.

The teacher as a father

The teacher should be expelled and legal action taken appropriately.

 

Management of school re-entry after pregnancy

 

 

Guiding Principles

 

Rights based approach to ensure that children’s rights are protected. All children have a right to education and thus all obstacles to school completion should be removed to keep girls in the schools longer.

Building strong partnerships and linkages – supporting pregnant girls and adolescent mothers require learning institutions to build strong partnerships and linkages with parents, the community, health-workers, the police, local leaders, civil society organizations, religious and traditional leaders and with relevant institutions. Many cases of early pregnancies are a result of sexual violence and also due to some cultural norms. Some pregnant girls and adolescent mothers face psychological and emotional violence. Thus, need for protecting the young girls and young mothers against violence while still at school requires a multi-sectoral approach

Positive change in perceptions and attitudes of the teachers and the community- teachers need to appreciate that they have an obligation to ensure that children under their care are supported to complete school and are also free from violence. Any act of violence against the children is arbitrary to this obligation and is punishable.

Uphold the do no harm principle- all interventions to prevent early pregnancy, discrimination of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers in schools should minimize possible longer term harm, or support the adolescent mothers and their children in ways that facilitate long-term development.

Disclosure of pregnancy-related information and confidentiality: No staff shall, knowingly, disclose the pregnancy status and related information of the learner to other learners without consent of the learner.

Needs driven programming: School health programmes will be designed according to and in response to the identified priority needs of the respective school communities.

Best Interests of the Child: In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law,  administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the  best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. All pregnant girls below 18 years should be treated as children and not “small adults”.

 

 

Guidelines for management of school re-entry

 

The following is a minimum list of procedures or actions that shall be undertaken when an adolescent mother/her parents presents for admission or re-admission to the school:

Once the adolescent mother’s baby is at least six months, she shall be allowed to be admitted back to school unconditionally.

 

The parents shall seek re-admission of their daughter to school when the baby is at least six months. Head teachers shall provide the necessary help in this regard. In case of any problem, the DEOs or MEOs shall assist.

All schools shall prioritize the admission of the young mothers/girls after pregnancy and parents/ caregivers shall report the school that has refused to admit their daughter to the district education officer.

Head-teachers, District and Municipal Educations Officers shall assist such girls to be re-admitted to other schools to avoid stigma.

Other girls in the school shall be counseled on consequences of early sexual behavior, adolescent sexuality, negative peer influences, building self-confidence and self-esteem.

Ridicule or scorn or discrimination of the adolescent mothers is considered a form of psychological and emotional violence. Thus, like other forms of violence against children in schools (VACiS) shall be tracked and resolved using RTRR guidelines on VACiS. The School under the leadership of  the head teacher shall take measures to build its capacity to report and track violence against the adolescent mothers.

Both the learner and her parents shall be counseled on the importance of attending post-natal care and child health clinics

Remedial classes shall be arranged when the adolescent mother asks for them or when the teachers deem them necessary, and in the best interest of the adolescent mother.

As far as possible, the school administration shall allow the adolescent mother to rejoin school at the level where she left.

The SHC, the school administration and the senior woman shall avail counselling services including psycho-social support and life skills coaching to reduce the likelihood of similar circumstances happening again.

The adolescent mothers shall be told about their roles and responsibilities as students/pupils and as mothers, and the school rules against indiscipline and irresponsible sexual behavior.

Schools shall map out and adopt various modes of disseminating information to the community about pregnant girl’s continuation with schooling and the re-entry of adolescent mothers into school. The school shall timetable and hold an advocacy school week with activities aimed at preventing teenage pregnancy.

The senior woman/man shall be available to receive and appropriately resolve reports of discrimination, ridicule or jokes about adolescent mothers by fellow learners. Such violations might have happened in the community or at school, and may be reported by the learners from other schools or community members.

The school shall support adolescent mothers to link to community support structures for child care, and economic support and strengthening services

 

    Implementation of the guidelines

 

 

 

Introduction

The implementation of these guidelines requires a  multi-sectoral  approach  with  comprehensive  and effective linkages between the various stakeholders. The key ministries- Education and Sports (MoES), Health (MoH) and Gender, Labour and Social Development (MGLSD) need to work together to operationalize effective linkages at national, district, county, sub-county, community, and school levels. The main operational structure is well laid out in the National School Health Policy Draft 2018. This is summarized below as required in the context of prevention of teenage pregnancy in learning institution settings.

At a National level a School Health Coordination (NSHC) team will be constituted by staff from MoES, MoH, MGLSD and Ministry of Local Government, and other stakeholders.

At the district level, a District School Health Committee (DSHC) or Municipal School Health Committee (MSHC) will be constituted by the DEO/MEO, DHO/MHO, DCDO, DHE, local council secretary for health, relevant CSOs, and other stakeholders.

While the School Health Committee (SHC) shall be formed by members from SMC, PTA, school staff (head-teacher, senior woman/man teacher), Health-worker from the nearest health facility, religious leaders, and other stakeholders.

Further, a sub-committee of School Health Committee (SHC) led by the chair SMC or PTA and coordinated by the senior woman/man that is responsible for handling issues of retention of pregnant girls at school and re-entry of adolescent mothers.

These committees will ensure that the following are in place or are initiated into existence.

 

Guidance and technical support from Ministry of Health (MoH) MoH is responsible for providing guidance and technical assistance to partner organizations and line ministries  implementing ASRH programs, coordinating programs nationally, promoting the scale-up of ASRH programs, setting service standards and ensuring the integration of adolescent health into existing programs. Together, with MoES, MoH should ensure that health facilities, notably the public and private not for profit health facilities initiate or strengthen their links with schools in their catchment areas to facilitate referrals, support supervision, joint planning and budgeting, among others.

The school-health facility linkage system exists: The schools and the health facilities in the healthcare catchment area shall initiate or strengthen a referral and communication linkage system as described in the School Health Policy. Such a system shall include:

The health facility designating health professionals to supervise the health services delivery at the school. Such a staff shall be competent in the general counselling, and provision of psycho- social support.

The school shall train the senior woman and senior man teachers in general counselling and provision of psycho-social support.

 

All learning institutions shall establish an integrated health club of the learners to address existing and emerging health issues of the learners as elaborated in the BRMS. Each institution shall develop mechanisms for sustainability of these clubs in line with the guidelines for the formation, management and strengthening of school clubs. The senior woman/man teacher, the school matron and other teachers shall offer counseling services with provision for referral to health facility.

As part of Continuous Professional Development (CPD), personnel providing health services in schools, tutors, teachers and instructors will be equipped with counseling, and psycho-social support skills as well as skills to identify learners that need these services, and motivated to  provide such services regularly.

The community participation and structures aimed at prevention of teenage pregnancy and early marriages, and social change to reduce stigmatization of pregnant adolescents, and re- entry to school of adolescent mothers are in place.

Various social norms and circumstances promote early marriages and pregnancies, and need to be addressed. In many settings, when a teenager gets pregnant, early marriage becomes her only option. Further, there are misconceptions about the continuation of pregnant girls or re-entry of adolescent mothers, notably that retention promotes promiscuity among young girls. Thus,

The NSHC, DSHC, MSHC and SHC should develop strategies to reach the communities aimed at correcting these misconceptions.

The NSHC, DSHC, MSHC and SHC should develop programs to help pregnant girls and ad- olescent mothers overcome shame and stigma to stay or return to school, and to improve economic status of their households.

The NSHC, DSHC, MSHC and SHC shall develop and encourage appropriate sensitization and behavior change programs that target attitude change among the teachers, the learners, the parents/caregivers, religious leaders, the police and the general community about continua- tion/retention of pregnant girls in schools or re-entry of adolescent mothers.

MoES and MGLSD, the CSOs, and development partners should design communication and sensitization programs through the existing community structures and CSOs to promote or step up the promotion of the social norm change against early marriages, gender-based vio- lence, and to promote continuation/retention of pregnant girls at school and re-entry of girls to school after delivery, among other issues.

The schools shall map out and adopt various modes of disseminating information about ad- vantages of keeping girls in school and prevention of teenage pregnancies to the parents/ caregivers, the local leaders and religious leaders in their communities.

The dissemination of the current guidelines is initiated and continuously done by MoES, MoH, DLG, Municipals, and the learning institutions

The main channel for provision of knowledge and skills for the learners and the teachers is through the curriculum. Thus, the curriculum and other relevant delivery means will be reviewed and revised to ensure that teachers are adequately equipped to offer knowledge and skills to adolescents on preventions of teenage pregnancy. The necessary materials will be produced while teachers will be re- oriented accordingly.

 

Schools will make necessary arrangements to involve other stakeholders to interact with adolescents as resource persons in providing information on prevention of teenage pregnancy.

The DSHC and SHC will map out and adopt various modes of disseminating information in collaboration with other stakeholders such as media organizations. Such modes may:

Develop, publish and run in suitable media, multi-media messages for prevention and management teenage pregnancies in school settings.

Create an advocacy school week with activities for prevention and management of teenage pregnancies in schools. During this week, implement competitive school plays, art exhibitions, essays and other performing arts to show pregnancy prevention and management messages for school settings

Develop translated messages into selected local languages for prevention and management of teenage pregnancies.

Record and play media messages from leaders; religious, cultural and community for prevention and management of pregnancy in school settings.

Organize dialogues of school/student leaders to adopt the guidelines in the student and pupil’s routine school life.

Organize teenage pregnancy prevention and management competitions and quizzes in the school.

Teacher re-orientation and training so that they can handle issues of pregnancy in school appropriately

Sensitization of the public and especially foundation bodies on the guidelines

Read the guidelines of prevention of teenage pregnancy and management to the teachers and the learners at least once every term.

Ensure that counselling services are available at school to support the change of attitudes of teachers and learners. This should also be targeted at addressing stigma related to school girl pregnancy. Guidance and counseling sessions should be clearly indicated on the school time table.

The MoES and the DSHC or MSHC have effectively reached all teachers and school staff to equip them with knowledge of supporting pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

The MoES and the DSHC or MSHC should design sensitization and awareness programs for all the education managers, teachers and school staff, and the whole school community in   the district or the municipality. This can also be done through continuous education and pre- service training; and a cascading model of teacher training.

The head-teachers shall ensure that their teachers and staff are appropriately trained; re- tooling of teachers to support pregnant girls, and adolescent mothers overcome stigma and discrimination

The ministry shall mainstream the sexuality education into the curriculum.

 

5.1     Mobilization of the Actors, roles and responsibilities

 

The guidelines will be disseminated as widely as possible, particularly to schools, lower local governments and local leaders. The actors and users of these guidelines will be mobilized and sensitized to secure their insight about the purpose and importance of the guidelines, their intended roles and reaffirming their commitment to implement the guidelines. This will be done through a number of ways ranging from use of the mass media, community awareness, consultative workshops, to dissemination meetings and formal trainings. This will also offer an opportunity to establish any gaps and challenges that may affect the optimal implementation of the guidelines and put in place mechanisms to address the problems.

The table below gives a list of some of the key actors and their roles and responsibilities.

 

Key actors at national level

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ministry of Educations and Sports

Review the school curriculum and to incorporate sexuality education and life skills training

Re-tool teachers on how to support pregnant girls, and adolescent mothers overcome stigma and discrimination

Mainstream the prevention teenage pregnancy in the curriculum of teacher training, instruction and education

Publish and disseminate the guidelines on Prevention and Management of teenage pregnancy in schools

Ensures that the DLG and municipal local governments develop and regularly implement an advocacy/ creation of awareness week, that is culturally sensitive, and community need driven

Ensures that the schools and school administration adhere to the guidelines

Ensure the collection of accurate, up- to-date and disaggregated data on the incidences of pregnancy, circumstances that led to pregnancy, school re-entry and as well as data on the effectiveness of existing programmes and approaches

Ensure full access to facilities and records and inspection of all school facilities, permit unannounced visits, and include the holding of private consultations with children and staff on sexual violence against children in schools

Oversight, coordination, monitoring and evaluation, supervision and implementation of guidelines

Periodic review of the guidelines

 

 

 

 

Ministry  of Gender,

Labour and Social

Development

Allocate resources for eliminating violence against children

Provide policy directions and formulation on sexual and gender-based violence

Supervision and monitoring and evaluation of implementation of guidelines

Foster a positive and progressive attitudes and perceptions on child rights; on sexual violence against children, right to education and right to health

Advocate and train parents, communities on sexual violence against children and responsibilities on protection of children against sexual violence and early marriage

Build linkages with MoES and development partners to develop and encourage community level programs or structures that support child care and economic strengthening of households with pregnant girls and adolescent mothers.

Promote positive parenting and male engagement in prevention of violence against children

 

The Ministry of Health (MoH)

Provide policy directions and formulation

Supervision and monitoring and evaluation of implementation of these guidelines

Allocate resources and ensure delivery of quality SRH services including medical check-ups

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
Promote the right of access to information and records in the possession of the State or any public body
Ministry of Information and National Guidance Encourage media; print (newspapers), audio (radios and television) and visual to educate the community on girl child’s right to education, retention of girls at school and re-entry of adolescent mothers

Ensure that media reports on sexual violence against children, stigma and discrimination against pregnant girls and adolescent mothers reflect children’s views and experiences, avoid sensationalism and ensure respect for the right to privacy and right to education

Develop public awareness campaigns, media coverage and publicity on sexual violence

 

 

Ministry of Internal Affairs

Ensure that the perpetrators of sexual violence against children are held accountable, including serving their sentences in line with the children (amendment) Act 2016

Prevent and detect crimes including violence against children in and around the school

Keep track and share information on perpetrators of sexual violence in line with the RTRR guidelines

Provide adequate protection for children in schools including child mothers by preventing compromising information as the investigations go on.

 

Key actors at district level

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
 

 

District Education officer/Municipal education officer

Promote and increase awareness about the importance of the guidelines

Coordinate district-wide activities for promoting the use of the guidelines

Provide technical support to schools in use of the guidelines

Ensure that schools implement the guidelines

Conduct regular monitoring, evaluation and data collection on use of the guidelines

District Health Officer/Municipal medical officer Promote and increase awareness about the importance of the guidelines

Ensure that health systems implement the guidelines

 

Conduct regular monitoring, evaluation and data collection on use of the guidelines

 

 

District Community Development Officer

Promote and increase awareness about the importance of the guidelines

Provide technical support to community-based workers in use of the guidelines

Ensure that community-based workers implement the guidelines

Conduct regular monitoring, evaluation and data collection on use of the guidelines

 

Key actors at health facility level

 

 

 

 

Health -workers

Oversee the implementation of SRH at schools, and prioritize delivery of SRH services to learners

Carry out pregnancy testing, confirmation of pregnancy and sexual violence cases

Provide most update information on growth and development

Provide health care, counselling, psychosocial support to pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

Provide expert evidence oaths to support legal processes on SGBV

Resource Persons for school health clubs

Support pregnant girls and adolescent mothers to access support from community structures, CSOs, NGOs and others

 

Key actors at school level

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
 

 

 

Foundation Body/ BoGs/ SMC/PTA

Put in place school rules and regulations for protection of adolescents against sexual practices

Oversee the compliance with school rules and regulations

Put in place strategies for counselling, psychosocial support, and child protection

Put in place strategies for reintegration of adolescent mothers to the school

Put strategies in place to ensure that attitudes of all the teachers, tutors or instructors in the institution are aligned and hence unbiased towards pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

Disseminate these guidelines to the wider community

Advocate for the children’s rights, responsibilities including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

 

 

 

 

 

School Health Committee

Do needs assessment and identify staff to be developed in the area of sexuality education

Facilitate planning and resource mobilization for school health activities including the advocacy week

Facilitate the formation of school health clubs

Ensure smooth referral of learners from schools to the health facilities

Ensure linkages with other SHCs in the district

Initiate and enforce school health by-laws and guidelines in the educational institution

Protection of the rights of learners/students within and outside the educational institution

Engage the community and community leaders in prevention of pregnancy, changing the attitudes of the community toward pregnant girl retention at school and re-entry of adolescent mothers, and violence against children

 

 

 

 

School Health

Sub-Committee on pregnancy and re- entry of adolescent mothers

Screen and support pregnant girls or adolescent mothers to reintegrate into the learning institution

Ensure that cases of discrimination and ridicule of the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers by teachers or fellow learners are investigated and appropriately resolved. Notably with a warning and attitude change counselling

Create or strengthen linkages between the teachers, health workers and the Children and Family Protection Unit police officers

Develop strategies to ensure that the boy/man responsible for the girl’s pregnancy are contributing toward the girl and the baby’s welfare

Collaborate with key agencies with mandate to ensure law and order such as the police, courts of law to ensure that justice or prosecution is executed, if required

Develop strategies to ensure safety nets for the adolescent girls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Head teacher

Adopt and implement these guidelines in the school

Enforce school rules and regulations for protection of adolescents against sexual practices

Collaborate with other actors like CSOs, NGOs, the police, local leaders and responsible families

Support the family of the pregnant girl to trace the boy/man responsible for pregnancy

Monitor attitudes of all the teachers, tutors or instructors in the institution and ensure that they are aligned and hence unbiased towards pregnant girls or adolescent mothers

Ensure strict compliance with school rules and regulations on prevention of sexual practices

Compile data on adolescent pregnancies and adolescent mothers and report to the DSHC

Collaborate with key agencies with mandate to ensure law and order such as police and courts of law to ensure that justice or prosecution is executed, if required

Develop strategies to ensure safety nets for the adolescent girls

Discuss the guidelines for continuation/retention of pregnant girls and re-entry of adolescent mothers with all the learners, the affected girls or boys and their parents or caregivers

Advocate for the Children’s rights including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
 

 

 

 

 

 

Senior woman/man teacher

Provide adolescents with tailored information on prevention of pregnancy, and counsel against dangers of bad sexual practices

Provide support and counselling to the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers, and their parents

Counsel girls and prepare them for termly checks and tests for pregnancy

Discuss the guidelines for continuation of pregnant girls and re-entry of adolescent mothers with all the learners, the affected girls or boys and their parents/ caregivers

Track and follow-up cases of discrimination, ridicule or stigmatization of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

Liaise with school nurse (or health facility nurse for schools without nurses) to conduct the pregnancy tests

Advocate for the Children’s rights including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teachers/Tutors/ Instructors

Enforce school rules and regulations for protection of adolescents against sexual practices

Ensure protection of learners against acts or situations that potentially result in pregnancies

Treat all learners the same way without any negative biases toward girls, pregnant girls, and adolescent mothers

Offer age-appropriate sexuality education and guidance

Help the senior woman/man teacher to offer guidance and support to affected learners

Ensure learners do not discriminate, ridicule or make jokes about pregnant girls, adolescent mothers either within or outside the institution premises

Cooperate with key agencies with mandate to ensure law and order such as the police, courts of law to ensure that justice or prosecution is executed, if required

Use teaching strategies that ensure operationalization of the current guidelines

 

 

School nurse

Provide adolescents with age appropriate information on prevention of pregnancy, and counsel against dangers of bad sexual practices

Work with the Senior Woman teacher to conduct pregnancy tests at least once a term

Keep confidential records on cases and pregnant girls

In liaison with other members of the SHC including the head teacher, senior (wo)man teacher, health facility nurse, will manage the pregnant girls and nursing mothers

Together with the senior woman/man teacher and the head teacher manage the referral process for pregnant girls

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learners

Report incidences or violations of school rules and regulations

Attend health education and sexuality education sessions

Adapt and practice knowledge and skills on prevention of pregnancy

Avoiding situations that make them vulnerable to pregnancy

Children should be aware of their rights, responsibilities and obligations at all times

Children should report cases of discrimination to the relevant stakeholders and seek support from designated support in case of any form of sexual violence

Respect the rights of other children and adults

Should not discriminate, ridicule or make jokes about fellow learners on grounds of pregnancy, motherhood, or any other grounds

School health clubs Fora for peer-sharing of information on prevention measures and practices against pregnancy

Resource centre for relevant materials (print, audio, video, etc.) on school health

 

Key actors at community level

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Family

Protection and safety of adolescents against practices that result in pregnancy

Liaise with school authorities in ensuring compliance with school rules and regulations on protection

Seek appropriate support services for the pregnant girl or the adolescent mother

Ensure that the pregnant girl or adolescent mother receives relevant support to return to school

Provide the much-needed support to children especially to girls to check on the sexual abuse and exploitation of girls by big boys, teachers and other men in the community under the disguise of providing material support to girls.

Guide and caution children against strangers and relatives who are potential perpetrators of violence.

Encourage siblings to support and protect (watch over each other) while at school.

Collaborate with the learning institution, police, health facility and the family of the male offender to resolve the pregnancy case

 

SMC/PTA (as community- school linkage facilitators)

Coordinate with the schools in collecting information on circumstances leading to the pregnancy

Follow up on legal action and inform the teachers

Track and report or address community level violence (psychological violence) against adolescent mothers

 

 

Members of the Community

Encourage community discussions to identify and educate community members on negative cultural and religious norms and practices that perpetuate gender-based violence

Take measures to ensure that children are safe on their way to and from schools.

To strengthen social support mechanism to protect children in schools against violence

Adopt community strategies such as name and shame, exposure of perpetrators of violence against children.

 

 

 

Cultural or traditional institutions

Advocate for positive changes in cultural practices to eliminate gender bias and violence against girls

Advocate for community members to have their collective “eyes on the children”, identify children at risk of sexual abuse and refer cases of child abuse to relevant institutions such as probation and welfare officers,

Devise positive strategies for enforcing a sense of responsibilities among parents and communities,

Community mobilization for information broadcasting/campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Community level Local Governments (LGs)

Identification of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers and ensuring their protection

Support the dissemination of these guidelines to community members

Discourage cultural practices that violate children’s rights.

Adopt community strategies such as name and shame, exposure of perpetrators of violence against children.

Advocate for positive changes in cultural practices to eliminate gender bias and violence against children

Advocate for the Children’s rights including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

Coordination with other authorities including community policing

Coordinate with the schools in collecting information on circumstances leading to the pregnancy

Follow up on legal action and inform the teachers

Resource person for school health club

 

Key Actor Roles and responsibilities
Uganda Police Force –CFPU and The Sexual Gender Based Violence & Child related Offences Department Investigate reported cases of violence against children thoroughly

Produce comprehensive reports to court on cases of criminal nature of sexual violence against children including filling in the PF form correctly

Protect the child survivor against intimidation by culprit or preventing compromising information as the investigations go on

Resource Person for school health clubs

 

 

 

Courts (Family and Children Court)

Get lawyers to represent the child survivors of sexual violence

Handle cases to conclusion

Strong judgments for the perpetrators according to the existing laws to discourage the practices

Speedy handling of reported cases and decide on support for the pregnant girl or adolescent mother and the baby

Ensure child friendly procedures for handling cases of sexual violence against children

 

 

Community Based Workers and VHT

Mobilize adolescents for participation in peer-sharing corners/sessions

Popularize the guidelines within the community

Coordinate community-based actors to pregnancy prevention initiatives

Resource Persons for school health clubs

Advocate for the children’s rights including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

 

 

Civil Society Organizations

Support local government to disseminate and popularize the guideline

Collaboration with schools to implement these guidelines

Supporting parenting girls in coping mechanism for their well being

Implement good practices

Resource person to school health clubs

Advocate for the Children’s rights including right to complete school by the pregnant girls and adolescent mothers

 

 

                              Monitoring and Evaluation

Results-based monitoring, evaluation and reporting system will be used to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of the guidelines on prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings. This will ensure that intended results are tracked, with transparency and accountability in the use of limited resources, and timely corrective actions are executed.

 

 

The M&E Framework

 

The framework for monitoring and evaluation will comprise:

 

The Logical Framework, including the objective of the guideline on management of teenage pregnancy in schools and school re-entry after pregnancy, key activities, expected outcome, measurable indictors, means of verification and the assumptions, attached as Annex III.

The M&E Matrix, including the indicators and targets as given in Table below.

Monitoring and Evaluation Methods, that include both the quantitative and qualitative data collection using surveys, use of the data in the Education Management Information System, monitoring and evaluation reports and school level reports, school level audits and inspections, and meeting minutes. Interview guides, semi-structured questionnaires and check-lists will be used for data gathering.

MoES and other line ministries will routinely undertake monitoring and evaluation for data collection, documentation and reporting and review of application of the guidelines in a school setting and resulting behaviour change among the adolescent learners and teachers. The SHC shall report   on the number of community individuals reached with information on continuation/retention of pregnant girls in schools and re-entry of adolescent mothers in the school term. This will be through PTA/SMC meetings in the community, working with local councils, school advocacy week or working with religious leaders. The school head-teacher or designate shall fill in Form 3 in Annex I and school records sheet in Annex II.

 

 

Reporting formats

 

Reporting formats and reporting lines to feed into a national data resource for prevention teenage pregnancy in school settings is expected as determined by the MoES. Analysis of data and reporting formats to synthesis results shall be adopted to ensure a synthesized national data reported annually. Both termly and annual reports from schools to the districts will be used in analysis and results disseminations.

 

Review of the guidelines

 

The guidelines may be reviewed at the discretion of MoES and other ministries with reference to older versions of the guidelines made in an agreed review cycle ensuring that they remain alive relevant and responsive to shifting aspects and needs. Amendments to the guidelines may be proposed and documented for deliberations that result in improvements in the guidelines segregated to meet needs at various levels. An amendment log and serializing of amended versions of the guidelines shall be determined by the MoES.

 

Monitoring and Evaluation Results Matrix for Implementation of the Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Teenage Pregnancy in School Settings in Uganda

 

 

 

Result

 

Performance Indica- tors/ measures

 

unit of measure

 

Base- line

 

Tar- get

 

Frequen- cy

 

Means of verification

 

data source/ method

Respon- sibility for data collec- tion Comments/

 

Assump- tions

Outcome Level
%age of girls to total  

§ Education Sector School Cen- sus reports

§ EOC gender and equity reports

§ UDHS reports

§ UBOS Cen- sus report

§ MoFPED Budgets reports

§ District moni- toring reports

§ District annual performance reports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

§ MoEs- EPPAD,

§ District

§ UNEB

§ UBOS

§ EOC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

§ Statistics and CIM Depts- MoES

§ DEO’s Office

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timely com- putation of the indicator figures by the EPPAD/ Statistics section

enrolment (upper pri-
Intended

Result:

mary and secondary

levels, BTVET & Post

% Annually
Primary)
Survival rate to grade  

%

 

Annually

Increased 7 by sex
retention, comple-

tion and

P.7 Completion rate by sex  

%

 

Annually

P7 Pass rate by sex % Annually
achievement
rate for ado-

lescent girls

S1 Transition rate by  

%

 

Annually

in school. sex
Survival rate to S.2  

%

 

Annually

by sex
S.4 Completion rate  

%

 

Annually

by sex
S.4 Pass rate by sex % Annually
Transition rate to S.5 % Annually
Output Level

 

 

 

Result

 

Performance Indica- tors/ measures

 

unit of measure

 

Base- line

 

Tar- get

 

Frequen- cy

 

Means of verification

 

data source/ method

Respon- sibility for data collec- tion Comments/

 

Assump- tions

1. Preven- tion of preg- nancy among school girls Schools with copy(s) of the guidelines  

No.

 

Bi-annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

§ District annual performance reports

§ School monthly reports

§ School club reports

§ School accountability reports

§ School inven- tory reports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEO’s

office

 

Head teacher’s office

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MoES DEO

Head teach- er, SWT/ SMT, Club Patrons, SMC/BOGs

District and school level staff oriented on the guidelines  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Schools with School Health Committee (SHC)  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Schools with rules and regulations on teenage pregnancy  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Proportion schools with clear support mechanisms for absti- nence  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

Schools with clear systems and reporting mechanisms for VACiS  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Schools with functional School Health Clubs  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Schools with clear records of  school and community level sexuality education awareness interven- tions, campaigns and competitions  

 

 

No.

 

 

 

Bi-annual

§ School health committee reports
Schools with a talking environment on prevention of teenage pregnancy  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

 

 

 

Result

 

Performance Indica- tors/ measures

 

unit of measure

 

Base- line

 

Tar- get

 

Frequen- cy

 

Means of verification

 

data source/ method

Respon- sibility for data collec- tion Comments/

 

Assump- tions

2. Improved manage- ment of preg- nancy in school setting Schools conducting termly examination for pregnancy  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Schools with a trained SWT/SMT in charge of guidance and coun- selling  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

Schools with signed agreements and com- mitments for girls to re-enter school  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

 

 

§ District health reports

§ School Guidance and Counselling files

§ Children’s school file

§ Case man- agement Register

§ School Time Table

§ Community engagement reports

 

§ DHO’s office

§ CBO’s office

§ DEO’s office

§ RDC’s Office

§ Head

teach- er’s office

 

§ RDC

§ DHO

§ DEO

§ Head

teacher,

§ SWT/ SMT

§ Parents

§ SMC/

BOGs

Schools with evi- dence of guidance and counselling and psychosocial support for pregnant girl  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

Schools with a com- munication box used to collect information about pregnancy  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

Schools with case management register on teenage pregnancy cases (RTRR records)  

 

No.

 

 

Bi-annual

Schools with clear schedules (time table) of activities aimed at preventing teenage pregnancies and

re-entry for adolescent mothers into school

 

 

 

No.

 

 

 

Bi-annual

Pregnant young girls or young mothers visited at home by school authorities  

 

%

 

 

Bi-annual

3. Increased re-entry of girls after pregnan- cy Schools with re-entry records  

No.

 

Bi-annual

 

 

 

 

 

§ School admission records

§ District health reports

§ School Academic performance reports

§ School club reports

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

§ Head

teach- er’s office

§ SWT/ SMT office

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

§ DEO

§ Head

teacher, SWT/ SMT,

Parents SMC/ BOGs

Adolescent mothers allowed to re-enter school  

%

 

Bi-annual

Parental involvement in seeking re-entry for their children after giving birth  

%

 

Bi-annual

Adolescent mothers attending post-natal care and child health clinics upon re-entry  

%.

 

Bi-annual

School with evidence of remedial lesson support to adolescent mothers after re-entry  

No.

 

Bi-annual

Adolescent mother participating in school leadership and mento- ring activities  

%

 

Bi-annual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Form 1: Promise of support by the father or parents of the father of the unborn child

 

I/We (“we” in the case of school boy and the caregivers)                                               do hereby promise to support the baby mother (Name:                           ) both financially and materially until the child is 18 years of age. I/We also promise to assist the girl’s parents/caregivers in ensuring that she returns to school after delivery.

 

 

Name of the school boy/man responsible for the  pregnancy                                                                    

 

Address                                                                                                                                                                 

 

DOB                                                                             Grade (if in school)                                              

 

Location details                                                                                                                                       

 

Phone number and address                                                                                                                      

 

Signature                                                                      Date:                                                                   

 

Name of parents/caregivers (where applicable):                                                                                         

 

Father                                                                           Mother                                                                 

 

Date:                                                                                                                                                        

 

 

 

Copied to:

Girl’s parents/caregivers The girl

The school file

The health facility file

 

Form 2: Commitment by the parents/caregivers of the girl to re-entry to school

 

 

 

I/We, the parents/Caregivers of                                                                     do hereby promise to ensure that she returns to school after delivery within one year after delivery.

 

 

Name of the parents/Caregiver                                                                                                                                                             

 

Mother/caregiver 1                                                                                                                                                             

 

Address                                                                                                                                                             

 

Signature                                                                      Date:                                                                                 

 

 

 

Form 3: School records

 

 

Section 1: Details of the school:                                                                                                                                                             

 

 

Name of the school:                                                                                                                                                             

 

Address of the school:                                                                                                                                              Type  of school: Community/Private/Public                                                                                                                                              

 

Section 2: Biodata

 

 

Details of the female learner                                                                                                                                                             

 

 

 

Name                                                                            DOB     

Grade                                                      

 

Name of parents/caregivers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Home address                                                                                                                                              Status: Orphan (single/double)/Not orphan                                                                                                                                               Other details                                                                                                                                                                 

 

Expected date of delivery:                                            Expected date of leaving school                         

 

Expected date of re-entry to school                                                                                                                                                                   School re-admitted to                                                                                                                                                                   Relevant Reasons                                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

Section 3: Details of the boy/male responsible for pregnancy

 

Name                                                                               

 

DOB                                                       

 

 

 

Status:

Teacher /

school staff

School boy /

fellow learner

 

 

Male relative                                                                                                                               

 

Outsider                                                                                                                                      

 

 

Address                                                                                                                                                   

 

Occupation                                                                                                                                              

 

Place of work                                                                                                                                          

 

Section 4: Number of counselling sessions attended

 

 

 

The girl                                                                                                                                                     

 

The boy                                                                                                                                                   

 

The girl’s parents/caregivers                                                                                                                     

 

Other information                                                                                                                                     

 

Parent/caregiver commitment                                                                                                                   

 

 

 

I/We                                                                                             do hereby promise that my/our daughter

                                                            will return to school after delivery.

 

 

 

 

Name of the school
District
Ownership
Type of school – day, boarding, mixed
Pregnancy rates
Date:     Class
Number of girls in class
No. of girls pregnant by the end of term
No. of young mothers (former students) who returned to school (here/elsewhere)
No. of young mothers who came for admission to the school
No. of girls during this term made pregnant by:
Fellow students
Teachers
Male relatives
Other men/boys – outsiders
Factors affecting effective implementation of guidelines of retention
–       Re-entry
–       Suggested/implemented solutions

 

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Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indictors (OVI) Means of Verification (MOV) Assumptions
Results •   % reduction in pregnancy rates in school settings

•   % reduction in school dropout due to pregnancy related reasons

•   % reduction in all forms of discrimination and stigma against pregnant girls or mothers in schools

•   UDHS reports
•   UBOS Census report
•   EMIS reports
Health Education for all •   MoES National survey
•   DSHC/MSHC monitoring reports
Purpose

 

 

 

To provide a supportive environment that harbors zero incidence of teenage pregnancy in school settings and reintegration of adolescent mothers

•   % increase in completion rates by the girl child.

•   % increase in girls pass rates

•   % of teachers actively advocating for pregnant girl retention at school

•   % of parents participating in school meetings and programmes

•   % of parents participating in promotion of prevention of pregnancy among school going children.

•   % increase in the re-entry of teenage mothers in schools

•   EMIS reports

•   MoES National survey

•   DSHC/MSHC monitoring reports

•   Educational Sector Annual performance reports

•   Minutes of the school general meetings and attendance lists

•   School management committee meet- ing minutes

•   Statistical Abstract

•  Proper record keeping at the school

•  Funding available for monitoring

Output •   Evidence of SE integration in curriculum for the learners

•   Evidence of SE integration in curriculum for the teach- ers/tutors/ instructors

•   Evidence of school-friendly healthcare and reporting mechanism in place

•   Copies of guidelines distributed to the teaching staff and the parents of the pupils.

•   Evidence of psychosocial support and child- protection in school settings

•   The number of district and school staff who attended the capacity development training exercise

•   Number of sensitization meetings conducted with the community in advocating for prevention of unintended pregnancy

•   Number of girls reintegrated into school after teenage pregnancy

•   Supportiveness of the school physical environment to prevent and manage teenage pregnancy e.g. with talking compounds

•   Frequency of school clubs’ involvement in communi- ty sensitization per term on issues related to sexual violence, pregnancy and retention of pregnant girls at school

•   Evidence of reporting for health activities conducted in the school

•   Monitoring and evaluation reports

•   Sensitization reports

•   Stakeholders willingness to implement the guidelines

•   Advocacy reports

•   School reports

•   Reports from stakeholders supporting and advocating for prevention of teen- age pregnancy in school settings.

•  Availability of funds for sensiti- zation activities

•  The sector policy formations for prevention and management of teenage pregnan- cy are approved

•  Political commit- ment/ good will

•   An appropriate monitoring mechanism put in place and documented with the records arranged in quarterly reports
•   Sector policies and guidelines on teenage pregnancy put in place
•   NSHC, DSHC, MSHC, SHC, and sub-committees put in place
•   Professional counselling services for pregnant girls, and adolescent mothers
•   Resources well mobilized for implementing the programmes
•   unintended pregnancy and re-entry measures integrated into the existing education system as well as the planning process.
•   Capacity of the district and school staff well developed to implement the guidelines
•   Community sensitized about pregnancy
•   Bye-laws and ordinances instituted in place to support prevention and continuation of teenage mothers at school
•   Implementing partners including CSOs providing technical support to the school as well as to the community on prevention of teenage pregnancy.
•   Talking compound in place with messages that depicts prevention of teenage pregnancy
•   Committee for monitoring the programme put in place
•   Trained pupils and parents on prevention of teenage pregnancy related issues
•   Measures put in place to sensitize teachers, parents and learners against discrimi- nation of pregnant girls, and adolescent mothers
•   Measures put in place to track and manage discrimination of pregnant girls, ado- lescent mothers

 

  • Revised guidelines on Prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings in uganda

 

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Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indictors (OVI) Means of Verification (MOV) Assumptions
Activities Inputs Verification •   Adequate financial resource base to facilitate policy formulation & implementation processes

•   Adequate skilled human resource to help in the technical areas of prevention of un- intended teenage pregnancy

•   Political will to advocate for the HIV and teenage pregnancy pre- vention

•   Participation of stakeholders  in consultative workshops

•   All stakeholders are well coordi- nated

•   Form SHC sub-committee that handles cases of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers  

•   Training and IEC materials

 

•   Work plans

•   Initiate or strengthen health facility school linkages on SRH services, management of pregnant girls and adolescent mothers •   Financial resources

•   Human resource

•   Financial records

•   Activity work plan

•   Schools and health facilities to work jointly on managing the affected learners •   Technological resources (Computers, furniture, etc.)
•   Design and deliver age-appropriate and culturally-sensitive, values-based Sexuality Education Integrate prevention of teenage pregnancy programmes into existing education systems and planning processes
•   Train all teachers, police officers and health-workers in managing in-school preg- nant girls and adolescent mothers, and the associated stigma
•   Organize school advocacy week and other community level sensitization sessions on retention of pregnant girls at school and reintegration of adolescent mothers
•   Coordinate all stakeholders and partners concerned HIV/AIDS prevention and management of girl child mothers
•   Participate in monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of these guidelines
•   Creation of talking compound with messages that promotes HIV prevention and safety as well as teenage pregnancy in schools
•   Help develop bye-laws and ordinances to curb issues related to teenage pregnan- cy and sex abuse
•   Train community coaches and members of SMC and PTA to sensitize the com- munity and advocate for retention of pregnant girls at school and reintegration of adolescent mothers; campaign against early marriages
•   Conducting health checks for the pupils at school
•   Establish the circumstances under which pregnancy occurred

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Revised guidelines on Prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings in uganda

 

 

 

 

 

S/N INSTITUTIONS/AGENCIES AND MINISTRIES
1 UN- FAMILY

UNFPA UNICEF

UN-WOMEN

UNESCO

2 IRISH AID
3 UK-AID
4 USAID
5 SIDA
6 NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

FORUM FOR AFRICAN WOMEN EDUCATIONALISTS(FAWEU) PLAN INTERNATIONAL

WORLD VISION

TRAILBLAZERS MENTORING FOUNDATION CONCERN FOR THE GIRL CHILD STRAIGHT TALK FOUNDATION

RAISING VOICES

ORGANISATION OF AFRICAN FIRST LADIES FOR DEVELOPMENT INTER-RELIGIOUS COUNCIL

SAVE THE CHILDREN

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH UGANDA ANTIHILL FOUNDATION

7 MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT

UWOPA

COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN

8 MAKERERE UNIVERSITY – SCHOOL OF WOMEN AND GENDER STUDIES
9 KYAMBOGO UNIVERSITY-DIRECTORATE OF GENDER
10 MINISTRIES

MINISTRY OF GENDER, LABOR AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MINISTRY OF HEALTH

MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS- UGANDA POLICE(FAMILY AND CHILD PROTEC- TION, DEPARTMENT OF SEXUAL OFFENSES

 

 

  • Revised guidelines on Prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings in uganda

 

 

S/N INSTITUTIONS/AGENCIES AND MINISTRIES
12 TECHNICAL WORKING GROUPS OF MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS GENDER TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP

HEALTH AND HIV TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP BASIC EDUCATION WORKING GROUP

INTER-SECTORAL COMMITTEE ON VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN MONITORING AND EVALUATION WORKING GROUP

SECTOR POLICY MANAGEMENT WORKING GROUP

EDUCATION SECTOR CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE

13 DISTRICT LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
14 SCHOOLS HEADS AND SENIOR MEN AND WOMEN TEACHERS
15 TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTIONS(PTCS AND NTCS)

 

 

 

 

 

44       Revised guidelines on Prevention and management of teenage pregnancy in school settings in uganda
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